Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) Study
Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) Study

Observing changes as they occur over time helps scientists understand how systems work. Long-term observations have been a key part of the U.S. JGOFS research program since 1988, when time-series studies were launched at open-ocean sites near the islands of Hawaii in the Pacific (HOT, Hawaii Ocean Time-Series) and Bermuda in the Atlantic (BATS, Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series). The data sets amassed during monthly cruises to these sites over more than a decade are yielding a wealth of information on seasonal fluctuations, interannual variability and decadal changes in a number of oceanic properties, including components of the carbon system. 

Each U.S. JGOFS time-series site maintains an open data management system on the web where you can also find background information on their ongoing activities and key scientific results to date. Also, special issues of Deep-Sea Research have been published that highlight JGOFS time-series research [Click here for Deep-Sea Research Special Issues] For more information, please check out the following www sites:

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