17-19 June 2002
Moss Landing, CA

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Results from this workshop are now available as an article written for Eos: "Workshop highlights role of iron dynamics in the carbon cycle", by Kenneth S. Johnson, J. Keith Moore and Walker O. Smith (posted 12 August 2002)
download or view article as MS Word file
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A more detailed report is also available:
view article in html
download or view article as MS Word file
download or view article as PDF file


Our focus in the original meeting proposal to JGOFS was to synthesize recent field and lab work, fertilization experiments, and modeling efforts in regards to the marine iron cycle, and to promote interactions between modelers and observationalists.

The goals for the meeting can be summarized as:

  1. To synthesize recent results from observational work and modeling efforts.
  2. To examine how models are currently incorporating iron dynamics, and to determine whether there is new information that could be used to improve parameterizations/representations in the models.
  3. To identify critical gaps in our knowledge of the marine iron cycle that are hampering modeling efforts, and to provide suggestions for future research.
These three goals should be the general guide for each of the breakout groups as well as for the meeting as a whole.

Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
7700 Sandholdt Road
Moss Landing, CA 95039
Main Telephone: 831-775-1700
Main FAX: 831-775-1620
Web Address: www.mbari.org
MBARI's event coordinator is:
Cyndi Stubbs
PHO: 831-775-1773
FAX: 831-775-1620
email: cyndi@mbari.org

Day 1 - Monday June 17th
8:30 breakfast MBARI
9:00-9:20 welcome/goals - Ken Johnson
9:20-11:00 JGOFS Fe Synthesis
  Southern Ocean - Wendy Wang (25 min.)
  Arabian Sea/South Atlantic - Chris Measures (25 min.)
  BATS/North Atlantic - Ed Boyle (25 min.)
  EqPac and HOT/North Pacific - Ken Johnson (25 min.)
11:00-11:30 break
11:30 - 12:30 Fe Fertilization Experiments
  SOIREE and other fertilizations - Phil Boyd
  SOFEX - Francisco Chavez
12:30-1:30 Lunch
1:30-2:00 Iron Chemistry/Colloids & Ligands - Jingfeng Wu
2:00-2:30  Coastal Fe - Dave Hutchins
  Coastal upwelling Fe limitation: California and Peru compared
2:30-3:00 Iron uptake and bioavailability - Kathy Barbeau
3:00-3:30 Break
3:30-4:00 Iron in multi-nutrient ecosystem models - Rob Armstrong
4:00-4:30 Iron incorportation into GCMs - Jim Christian
4:30-5:30 5-Minute 1-2 slide pop up presentations, focused on:
  1) Itemization of issues workshop should address
  2) New results / discussion topics for workshop
5:30 Reception at MBARI
Day 2 - Tuesday June 18th
Breakout groups
8:30-9:00 Breakfast
9:00-11:00 Breakout 1
  Group 1 Ligands & Iron Recycling - Mark Wells
  Group 2 Iron Cycling & External Sources - Chris Measures
11:00-11:30 Break
11:30-12:30 Group discussion of major points from breakouts
12:30-1:30 Lunch
1:30-3:30 Breakout 2
  Group 1 Fe in Ecolological Models & N-Fixation - Keith Moore
  Group 2 Coastal Fe Issues - Dave Hutchins
3:30-4:00 Break
4:00-4:45 Group discussion of major points from breakouts
4:45-5:15 Additional 5 minute pop-up presentations
Day 3 - Wednesday June 19th
8:30-9:00 breakfast
9:00-11:00 Breakout 3
  Group 1 Iron Fertilization Experiments - Kenneth Coale
  Group 2 Bioavailability of Fe, Photochemistry - Kathy Barbeau
11:00-11:30 Break
11:30-12:30 Group discussion of major points
12:30-1:30 Lunch
1:30-2:30 Summary discussion and recommendations for future research
2:30 Adjourn


- your powerpoint or other presentation can be linked here -


PW Boyd (in press?). The role of iron in the biogeochemistry of the Southern Ocean and Equatorial Pacific: a comparison of in situ iron enrichments. DSR II Special Issue on the Southern Ocean.

PW Boyd, GA Jackson and AM Waite (in press). Are mesoscale perturbation experiments in polar waters prone to physical artefacts? Evidence from algal aggregation modelling studies. Geophys. Res. Letters.
ABSTRACT: The exceptional longevity (>50 d) of a phytoplankton bloom following the mesoscale iron-enrichment of Antarctic polar waters (SOIREE) considerably exceeded that reported for naturally-occurring blooms (15-20 d) in this region. During SOIREE, SF6-labelled waters increased from 50 km2 to > 1100 km2, and the greatest algal loss term was lateral advection (0.1 d-1), akin to "cell-washout" required to maintain laboratory algal chemostats. To test whether such advective losses could delay the onset of mass sedimentation, a published algal aggregation model was employed. It successfully simulated temporal trends in the onset of mass sedimentation during the tropical IronEx II bloom, yet suggested no such event during SOIREE. However, when an iron-enrichment of 100 km length-scale (i.e. characterised by low lateral advection) was mimicked for SOIREE, a marked increase in algal aggregate size occurred after day 15, indicative of the onset of mass sedimentation. Thus, careful interpretation of results is essential - especially for the fate of algal carbon - from such experiments. In particular for polar waters where the ratio of net algal growth to advective losses is low (2, SOIREE), compared to tropical waters (6, IronEx II), suggesting that the understanding of polar experiments will require the proper compensation for artefacts.


Abiotic Iron Scavenging? by J. Keith Moore

We have incorporated a somewhat simplified version of the ecosystem model we described in a recent DSR special issue into the 3D global ocean model at NCAR. In this 3D work it has become apparent that the non-biotic removal of iron is a crucial issue about which we know relatively little. The biological uptake can keep surface concentrations of dissolved iron at reasonable concentrations in most regions, but much of this iron is then dumped in the 100-500m range as sinking biogenic particles remineralize. Thus, there has to be a strong abiotic scavenging of dissolved iron at these depths to prevent a buildup of dissolved iron due to the large amounts of iron entering surface waters from dust deposition each year. Some questions I have for the workshop include:

  1. What processes control the rates of abiotic iron scavenging? Model efforts to date have tied scavenging rates to particle concentration (i.e. sum of all biota POC) or to sinking POC flux, or some combination of both.
  2. How do scavenging rates vary as a function of depth? There must be fairly high scavenging of dissolved iron at shallow to intermediate depths (< ~500m), but much lower losses in the deep ocean.
  3. What is the role of ligands in controlling scavenging rates? Clearly the binding of iron to ligands is a key process in determining scavenging rates. However, do we know enough about the dynamics of the ligands (sources, sinks, etc..) to attempt to incorporate into ecosystem models?

PDF versions of our papers describing the ecoystem model are available online at the JGOFS SMP website: http://usjgofs.whoi.edu/mzweb/preprints.html I will also bring hard copies to the workshop


The Monterey Airport (the closest airport to MBARI) is approximately 20 minutes south of Moss Landing. AmericaWest and United Airlines fly into Monterey Airport  The San Jose Airport is approximately 1.5 hours north of MBARI. Many major carriers fly into San Jose Airport.

PLEASE NOTE: The rate and room block listed below is only available until MAY 17th. Please make your reservation early and please mention IRON WORKSHOP or JGOFS IRON WORKSHOP. If you have problems with hotel reservations, please feel free to contact the hotel sales rep (Mary Carrieri) directly or Cyndi Stubbs at MBARI.

We have rooms blocked as follows:
Hotel Telephone Rate* Description
Hilton Hotel
1000 Aguijito Road
Monterey Hilton web page
Mention: Iron Workshop or JGOFS Iron Workshop
Mary Carrieri, Sales Manager
$99/night and $94 for Fed government Free shuttle service from the airport. Full service hotel with restaurant on property.

Shuttle service from the San Jose and San Francisco airports:
There is a shuttle service that leaves roughly every hour. Please make a reservation with Monterey Salinas Airbus 831-883-2871
This shuttle has daily (almost hourly) departures from San Jose and San Francisco to Monterey.

  • Time from San Jose is 1 hour 45 minutes
  • Time from San Francisco is 2 hours 30 minutes

  • Rates are approximately $30 one way. Reservations are recommended.

    Carpooling between Hotel and MBARI:
    Rental cars and carpooling from the hotel is recommended for daily transportation to and from MBARI. As the agenda begins at 8:30 for a breakfast at MBARI, and the drive is ~20 min., those who need rides and those who can provide rides should meet in the hotel lobby at ~8:00-8:05 am on Monday.
    Taxis are very expensive; there is no convenient bus service.

    How to get to MBARI:
    Please check the following web page: http://www.mbari.org/about/directions/directions.html


    Pacific Forum Room - A variety of high-end AV equipment is available. Please contact Cyndi Stubbs ahead of time in order to reserve this equipment.

    While on site, MBARI will provide:

    Please note that we are unable to provide laptop hook ups outside of the meeting room unless arranged in advance.


    JGOFS Iron Workshop
    June 17-19, 2002
    Cyndi Stubbs (831-775-1773)