Synthesis & Modeling Project
|Charles D. Keeling|
Oceanic carbon cycle model analysis of a new global
set of oceanic carbon including extensive del-13C data and supporting
NSF: OCE-9725955 01/98-12/99
We propose to use high precision and extensive isotopic ratio measurements
of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in sea water to verify aspects of global
three-dimensional oceanic carbon cycle models related to the oceanic uptake
of anthropogenic CO2 and to physical and biological processes.
The data for this purpose consist of measurements of the C13/C12
isotopic ratio in all the major ocean basins. Much of the data were obtained
in expeditions of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Hydrographic Program
(WOCE/HP), but also include compatibly calibrated data from earlier programs, including
Transient Tracers in the Ocean (TTO) observations. A majority
of the measurements are of surface water, but there are also extensive
deep water measurements and some vertical profiles. The C13/C12
measurements are accompanied by
DIC measurements of the same water samples,
and usually by titration alkalinity (TA) measurements, except for the earliest
expeditions. Almost all measurements of C13/C12,
DIC, and TA were made in duplicate on pairs of water samples so that erroneous
data, arising from blunders in sampling or analysis, could be eliminated
by requiring agreement between the measurements. Using one or more
models of the ocean carbon cycle, we will examine the data and relate it
to important oceanic processes. We propose to develop and use this
large, as yet unpublished data set to make direct comparisons between observations
and model predictions and to render our entire body of sea water data in
a form usable by other modeling programs.
|DATA:||Results are available via the NCEI Ocean Carbon Data System (OCADS) Ocean Carbon and Acidification Data Portal; search for "Shore Based Carbon Analyses"|
Nicolas Gruber, Charles D. Keeling, Robert Bacastow, Peter R. Guenther, Timothy J. Lueker, Martin Wahlen, Harro A. J. Meijer, Willem G. Mook, and Thomas F. Stocker. "Spatiotemporal patterns of carbon-13 in the global surface oceans and the oceanic Suess effect," Global Biogeochemical Cycles, vol. 13 (1999), p. 307.
Nicolas Gruber, Charles D. Keeling, and Thomas F. Stocker, "Carbon-13 constraints on the seasonal inorganic carbon budget at the BATS site in the northwestern Sargasso Sea," Deep-Sea Research Part I, vol. 45 (1998), p. 673.
Nicolas Gruber and Charles D. Keeling, "Seasonal carbon cycling in the Sargass Sea near Bermuda," Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, vol. 30 (1999), p. 1.
Timothy J. Lueker, Andrew G. Dickson, and Charles D. Keeling, "Ocean pCO2 calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and equations for K1 and K2: Validation based on laboratory measurements of CO2 in gas and seawater at equilibrium," Marine Chemistry, vol. 70 (2000), p. 105.
Nicolas Gruber, Charles D. Keeling, and Nicholas R. Bates, "Interannual variability in the North Atlantic Ocean carbon Sink," Science, vol. 298 (2002), p. 2374.
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Charles D. Keeling
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
University of California, San Diego
9500 Gilman Drive
La Jolla, California 92093-0220
tel: (619) 534-4230
fax: (619) 534-8814