Response to US JGOFS Time-Series Oversight Committee Report that was
submitted to the US JGOFS Steering Committee

Anthony H. Knap and Anthony F. Michaels
Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Station
Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Inc
St. Georges, Bermuda GEO1

David Karl et al
Hawaii Ocean Time-series
SOEST, University of Hawaii
Honolulu, Hawaii

The BATS and HOT PI's would like to thank the Time Series Oversight group
for a thoughtful review. We have found these oversight committee reviews
useful for both pointing out areas of potential improvement in the present
program and for looking forward to the future, thus providing a context for
future directions and providing areas of concentration of effort. It is our
view that these two sites are providing valuable insights into the
biogeochemical cycles in the open ocean and we are pleased that the
oversight report acknowledges this. At the time of the discussion of the
report we did not have an opportunity to see the draft so our verbal
comments at the Steering Committee meeting in Hawaii are followed by this
written response. In the Oversight report a few items were omitted that
were part of the Time-series oversight meetings such as a discussion of the
importance of optics in the programs as well as a need for meteorological
measurements to be taken and be made part of Core. Some of the changes
recommended in the report have been implemented and these will be noted. We
do feel that it would be beneficial to all that in future, the Oversight
Committee report should be available to the PI's and their written comment
be received prior to discussion of it in the full SC meeting. This would
allow for discrepancies to be resolved prior to discussion.
In this note we will discuss our response to the recommendations of the

A. Core Measurements

p-4 A common manual was suggested and we agree that this would help to
re-define what we mean by core activities and suggest where we diverge in
our programs. Bermuda will take the lead in this as they did in preparing
the JGOFS protocols manual.

2. Quality Assurance

p-5 At present the CTD and salinity measurements are fine according to
the finding of the TSOC report and using DIC CRM's means that both sites
have access to certified reference material. There was some concern about
the different methods used for alkalinity
titration's but Andrew Dickson pointed out that it appeared that the CRM
standards that were produced for carbon could work for alkalinity as well.

p-6 Dissolved oxygen is carried out by different methods at both sites.
HOT PIs have agreed to adopt and purchase a similar instrument to that used
at BATS, funds permitting (cost of new instrumentation approximately $12K).

p-6 BBSR will investigate the opportunity for the colorometric pH
measurement as a core measurement however this will also require more

p-7 In the section on pigments, the detailed discussion resulted in the
conclusion that the impromptu BATS/HOT the intercomparison between both
sites was poorly designed as the differences between both laboratories
results were suggested to arise from a storage problem. Both groups will
continue to participate in community-wide intercomparison programs and not
attempt to carry out one-off calibrations. It was also noted that the BATS
pigment methods were originally designed by HOT personnel (Bidigare) and it
would be worthwhile to re-evaluate the present BATS protocols. It is also
important to make sure that well designed intercomparison exercises are
available for community wide involvement in for many other analytes.

p-8 For the enumeration of bacterial cells, BATS will work with HOT to

determine the best methods for both sites, most likely by dual laser flow

p-9-10 As always the issue of sediment trap discussions took a great deal
of time and it was agreed that there be a real effort to resolve this at
both sites. This will require funding outside of the present funding for
the two programs. In the interim, BATS and HOT will
try and trade personnel and try to further quantify some of the
methodological difference.

p-10 BATS presently does a lot of PC/N measurements. We will continue to
investigate sharing of samples between the two sites however there are
limitations to this and without a certified reference material errors can
occur through sample storage, filtration and other problems.

p-10 Regarding low level measurements, we are working at sharing
expertise between the two sites and both sites believe that valuable
insights are gained from such methods and BATS should find a way to have
these measurements made. Presently, these are not core measurements at both

p-10 BATS will add particulate P at the next funding cycle. We agree
that the deep sea sediment trap collections should be seen as a community
wide effort and part of core. Presently, these have been separately funded
efforts at Bermuda (funds to Dueser and Conte, WHOI) and we hope that over
time the collections can be moved into the core suite of measurements and
the data from the existing deep trap at Bermuda entered in to the BATS data

B. Data Products and their distribution

p-11 Data are now ready to be released electronically from both sites at
6-9 months after collection. The printed data reports are unwieldy and are
taking the greatest time to produce. The past delays in data reporting have
been due to the hard copy reporting, and at Hawaii, coordination with the
reporting obligations of the HOT-WOCE program PI's.

p-12 Data units, Both groups will try to adopt the same data reporting
units and an analysis of discrepancies in units will be undertaken during
the attempt to develop a common manual.

p-12 Knap and Karl will write the ancillary investigators.

C. Resolving Spatial Variability

p-13 Validation cruises are now part of the BATS data base. This has
been addressed since the Oversight meeting in Bermuda. Presently BATS does
two per year but this is being increased to 4 per year in 1998. A continual
profiler will be part of a new facilities request to NSF at BATS. Similar
validation cruises have recently begun at Hawaii.

p-14 We agree that regional process cruises around the time-series sites
would be a great addition to the data base and put in greater context the
measurements at the two sites to the greater ocean around them. This was
added as part of the TS Oversight report as an important high priority for
new funding.

p-14 At BATS and HOT there are links to the satellite programs at both
sites as well as to the Optics program at BATS. We feel it is crucial that
the existing optical programs be ratified as part of the core measurement
suite as currently occurs with the process studies. This will be the only
way to link the in situ biogeochemistry to the next generation of ocean
color satellites.

Resolving Temporal Variability with Moored Arrays

p-15 The mooring programs at both sites are important and are
underfunded. The support of these programs have been put in the funding for
the renewal proposal. Both PI's are doing whatever they can to keep these
mooring programs alive until 1998.

p-16 Shiptime. Shiptime at Bermuda was reduced due to NSF budgetary
reasons however the renewal proposal is to increase this shiptime to cover
the needs for the transect work. At Hawaii, discussion regarding a suitable
platform are ongoing.
We also believe that we should have a joint technician meeting and we
should try and get funding for such a sharing of personnel at least every
two years. We also would like to add that we are trying to preserve the
long term nature of these sites by continuing the dialog of BATS and HOT
future in relation to LTER/CLIVAR